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James Gardner: Home > Blog > 2007 > Debain 4.0 Etch AMD 64 X2 Server...

Debain 4.0 Etch AMD 64 X2 Server from Hetzner

Posted:2007-11-09 19:07
Tags:Debian, Hardware, Virtulization, Hosting

I bought a new server from Hetzner (German) on Sunday 4th November and on the evening of the 5th I received my sign in details by email in both German and English for the server, already installed with the 64bit version of Debian Etch. This post documents my progress setting it up.

Exploring the Control Panel

The first email you get gives you a sign in to the Hetzner control panel (they call it Robot). Everything is in German but here are some translations of the interface (thanks to Google Translate):

Verwaltung                           Administration
        Sicherheit                           Security
        E-Mail-Adressen                      Emails
        Support-Anfragen                     Support requests
        Status-Benachrichtigung              Status Notification
        Newsletter                           Newsletter
        RIPE-Registration                    RIPE-Registration
Rechnungen                           Bills
        Offene Posten                        Open Item
Traffic-Statistik                    Traffic Statistics
        Traffic-Limit-Reporting              Traffic limit Reporting
        Tagesbericht                         Daily Report
        Monatsbericht                        Monthly Report
        Jahresbericht                        Annual Report
Leistungsübersicht                   Performance Overview
        Resetaufträge                        Reset orders
        Rescuesystem                         Rescue System
        VNC-Installation                     VNC-Installation
        neuen Server bestellen               New server order
        Separater Admin-Zugang               Separate Admin Access
Reverse-DNS-Einträge                 Reverse-DNS
        Eintrag anlegen                      Entry
        Eintrag löschen                      Delete Entry
Dokumentation                        Documentation
        Daten-Export-Schnittstelle           Data Export interface

Perhaps the two most useful entries are Resetaufträge and Rescuesystem. The Resetaufträge page gives you three main options:

``Automatischen Hardware-Reset auslösen`` - Perform an automatic hardware reset.

STRG+ALT+ENTF an den Server senden - Send a CTRL+ALT+DEL signal to the server

Manuellen Hardware-Reset beauftragen - Request a member of the Hetzner staff manually reboot your server.

There is a warning with this last one which translates as:

Please note that manual Hardware-Resets only during our business hours, Monday through Friday 6:30-22:45 pm, Saturday 10-17 hours delay Edited. Outside of business hours, you can Robot menu under "support requests" our 24-h-Rufbereitschaft contact. Also available in the Guide for support operations valuable information.

I'm not sure if there is a charge for the manual reset.

The Rescuesystem sets up a config file for 5 minutes so that if you server reboots it will boot over the network using DHCP into a Hetzner-specific rescue system as long as you have a modern machine (mine was bought in November 2007 and works perfectly). The message translates as:

When activating the rescue system is a DHCP server on our configuration file. When rebooted your server will be booted from the network grabs this configuration file for the rescue system and loads a minimal base system from our TFTP. You can rescue the system will use as long as you need it. The order for the rescue system remains 5 minutes activated. If you then reboot your server will return your usual system of hard.

Caution:

Whether your server about the rescue system can boot depends on whether the network card on the server network is set to boot. This is only the latest in servers as a default by us so. If it is still not set, the server after activating the rescue system at the next reboot with the existing system from the hard disks. Should your server will be converted, then send an e-mail to support@hetzner.de or if you know where your server is equal to the appropriate data center. Indicate whether the change immediately, or at any time any of us can be carried out or by appointment only. The conversion is associated with down-time of about 5 minutes. We ask for your understanding if it in the handling of the changeover contracts to small delays can occur.

You have to choose whether to use the 32bit or 64bit system and then when you clcik the Aktivieren button the rescue system config is set up and you are given a password you'll need to login then if you reboot your server within 5 mins you will be booted in to the rescue system. Very handy.

It is well worth reading the help files (in this case run through Google translate) for more information about the Hetzner setup.

Checking the Stats

Here are some stats showing what a fresh setup looks like:

Debian-40-etch-64-minimal:~# df -h
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda2             365G  520M  346G   1% /
tmpfs                 2.0G     0  2.0G   0% /lib/init/rw
udev                   10M   36K   10M   1% /dev
tmpfs                 2.0G     0  2.0G   0% /dev/shm
Debian-40-etch-64-minimal:~# cat /etc/issue
Debian GNU/Linux 4.0 \n \l

Debian-40-etch-64-minimal:~# uname -a
Linux Debian-40-etch-64-minimal 2.6.18-5-amd64 #1 SMP Tue Oct 2 20:37:02 UTC 2007 x86_64 GNU/Linux
Debian-40-etch-64-minimal:~# free -m
             total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:          3926         73       3853          0         12         19
-/+ buffers/cache:         41       3885
Swap:         2055          0       2055

These commands show I'm using Debian 4.0 with a 364Gb hard disk on an AMD 64 machine and that I have 3853Mb of free RAM, using only 73Mb in total.

Re-Installing The Operating System

The first time I tried to setup the server with Xen it all went horribly wrong. This is because Xen expects Grub to be present but the default Hetzner Etch AMD64 image comes with Lilo. I tried removing lilo and setting up grub manually but to no avail although I did learn a lot about Grub as a result of my experiments and can recommend this excellent guide to grub.

Following the instructions in the previous section I initialed the rescue system, rebooted and then used SSH to connect. Since this isn't the same install you get an error from your SSH client until you remove the existing host from the known hosts file on your local machine:

james@dirac:~$ ssh root@doppler.3aims.com
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
@    WARNING: REMOTE HOST IDENTIFICATION HAS CHANGED!     @
@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@@
IT IS POSSIBLE THAT SOMEONE IS DOING SOMETHING NASTY!
Someone could be eavesdropping on you right now (man-in-the-middle attack)!
It is also possible that the RSA host key has just been changed.
The fingerprint for the RSA key sent by the remote host is
50:10:6b:5f:dc:e7:45:17:73:00:d0:50:f0:0e:48:be.
Please contact your system administrator.
Add correct host key in /home/james/.ssh/known_hosts to get rid of this message.
Offending key in /home/james/.ssh/known_hosts:1
RSA host key for doppler.3aims.com has changed and you have requested strict checking.
Host key verification failed.

Sign in as root with the password you got after clicking Aktivieren. Once you are in you see this:

Linux rescue 2.6.22.2 #2 SMP Tue Aug 28 09:28:15 CEST 2007 x86_64

------------------------------------------------------------------

  Welcome to the Hetzner Rescue System.

  This Rescue System is based on Debian 4.0 (etch) with a newer
  kernel. You can install software like in a normal system.

  To install a new operating system from one of our prebuilt
  images, run 'installimage' and follow the instructions.

  For more information take a look at http://wiki.hetzner.de

------------------------------------------------------------------

root@rescue ~ #

I ran the install script installimage choosing 64bit Debian 4.0 Etch and then editing the following settings in the config file:

FORMATDRIVE2 = 1
This sets up the second hard drive so you can actually use it.
BOOTLOADER = grub
This sets up the bootloader to use grub so that you can install Xen.

When you're done the install sets to work:

        Hetzner Online AG - installimage


#~ server will be installed now. this will take a few minutes.
#~ you can abort at any time with CTRL+C ..
#~ ( init) ~ reading vars...                            [ OK ]
#~ ( 1/11) ~ deleting partitions...                     [ OK ]
#~ ( 2/11) ~ creating partitions and fstab...           [ OK ]
#~ ( 3/11) ~ formatting partitions...                   [ OK ]
#~ ( 4/11) ~ mounting partitions...                     [ OK ]
#~ ( 5/11) ~ extracting imagefile from local...         [ OK ]
#~ ( 6/11) ~ setting up network config for eth0...      [ OK ]
#~ ( 7/11) ~ chrooting some commands...                 [ OK ]
#~ ( 8/11) ~ clearing logfiles...                       [ OK ]
#~ ( 9/11) ~ setting up some files...                   [ OK ]
#~ (10/11) ~ setting up rootpassword...                 [ OK ]
#~ (11/11) ~ setting up bootloader grub...              [ OK ]


#~~~ INSTALLATION COMPLETE ~~~#
you may now reboot into your new system
you can login to your new system with the same
password as you logged in into the rescue system


root@rescue ~ #

When you type reboot the server reboots back into a new Debian Etch install, this time using Grub and with the second hard disk available.

Installing Xen

Now that we have grub set up, installing Xen is as simple as entering two commands:

apt-get install xen-linux-system-2.6.18-4-xen-amd64
reboot

The OS will then reboot into the Xen DomU. You'll probably want the 5 free IP addresses Hetzner offer so that each Xen virtual machine can have its own IP address. You can request them from the Support-Anfragen section of the control panel. Choose the Subnetze für DS2000/DS3000/DS5000/DS7000/DS8000/DS9000 beantragen option.

According to this article about Xen on Hetzner you cannot use bridging on Hetzner. Instead you have to use routing via DomU.

Edit /etc/xen/xend-config.sxp so that it only contains these lines:

# -*- sh -*-
(network-script network-route)
(vif-script vif-route)

Restart xend:

/etc/init.d/xend restart

According to this page you will also need to run this command:

echo 1 > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/conf/eth0/proxy_arp

Xen is now setup ready for you to create some images.

Checking the Stats Again

Here are some stats showing what the new Xen setup looks like:

Debian-40-etch-64-minimal:~# df -h
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda2             365G  612M  346G   1% /
tmpfs                 1.7G     0  1.7G   0% /lib/init/rw
udev                   10M   36K   10M   1% /dev
tmpfs                 1.7G     0  1.7G   0% /dev/shm
Debian-40-etch-64-minimal:~#  cat /etc/issue
Debian GNU/Linux 4.0 \n \l

Debian-40-etch-64-minimal:~# uname -a
Linux Debian-40-etch-64-minimal 2.6.18-4-xen-amd64 #1 SMP Fri May 4 02:40:51 UTC  2007 x86_64 GNU/Linux
Debian-40-etch-64-minimal:~# free -m
             total       used       free     shared    buffers     cached
Mem:          3366        200       3165          0          1         15
-/+ buffers/cache:        182       3183
Swap:         2055          0       2055
Debian-40-etch-64-minimal:~# fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 400.0 GB, 400088457216 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 48641 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1               1         262     2104514+  82  Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda2             263       48641   388604317+  83  Linux

Disk /dev/sdb: 400.0 GB, 400088457216 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 48641 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System

As you can see, using Xen takes a bit more memory but it doesn't look like the second disk has any paritions or has been formatted by the Hetzner install after all.

Mounting the Other Hard Disk

Let's create a partition:

Debian-40-etch-64-minimal:~# fdisk -u /dev/sdb

The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 48641.
There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,
and could in certain setups cause problems with:
1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)
2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs
   (e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)

Command (m for help): n
Command action
   e   extended
   p   primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4): 1
First sector (63-781422767, default 63):
Using default value 63
Last sector or +size or +sizeM or +sizeK (63-781422767, default 781422767):
Using default value 781422767

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.

And then format it using an ext3 filesystem:

Debian-40-etch-64-minimal:~# /sbin/mkfs -t ext3 /dev/sdb1
mke2fs 1.40-WIP (14-Nov-2006)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
48840704 inodes, 97677838 blocks
4883891 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=4294967296
2981 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
16384 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks:
        32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208,
        4096000, 7962624, 11239424, 20480000, 23887872, 71663616, 78675968

Writing inode tables: done
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

This filesystem will be automatically checked every 37 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first.  Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.

Add this line to /etc/fstab:

/dev/sdb1 /mount/sdb1 ext3 defaults 0 0

Then mount the partition:

mkdir /mount
mkdir /mount/sdb1
mount /dev/sdb1

Checking the stats again we have:

Debian-40-etch-64-minimal:~# fdisk -l

Disk /dev/sda: 400.0 GB, 400088457216 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 48641 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sda1               1         262     2104514+  82  Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda2             263       48641   388604317+  83  Linux

Disk /dev/sdb: 400.0 GB, 400088457216 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 48641 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes

   Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/sdb1               1       48642   390711352+  83  Linux
Debian-40-etch-64-minimal:~# df -h
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda2             365G  612M  346G   1% /
tmpfs                 1.7G     0  1.7G   0% /lib/init/rw
udev                   10M   40K   10M   1% /dev
tmpfs                 1.7G     0  1.7G   0% /dev/shm
/dev/sdb1             367G  195M  348G   1% /mount/sdb1

Much better, 674Gb free space.

Setting up Domain and Host Names

All my machines have hostnames named after famous Physicists so this one is doppler.3aims.com named after Christian Doppler. I set up its DNS entries through the DynDNS control panel as follows:

doppler.3aims.com.  1440  A   78.46.35.5

Then I SSH'd into the machine, set a new root password and changed /etc/hostname to doppler and replaced the line after localhost with this in /etc/hosts:

78.46.35.5 doppler doppler.3aims.com

You then run hostname doppler to save yourself a reboot. More info on etch hostnames here:

Debian-40-etch-64-minimal:~# vim /etc/hostname
Debian-40-etch-64-minimal:~# vim /etc/hosts
Debian-40-etch-64-minimal:~# hostname doppler

All good so far.

Basic Configuration

Rather than doing everything as root it is best to add a normal user account and grant sudo privileges:

Debian-40-etch-64-minimal:~# apt-get install sudo
Debian-40-etch-64-minimal:~# adduser james
Adding user `james' ...
Adding new group `james' (1000) ...
Adding new user `james' (1000) with group `james' ...
Creating home directory `/home/james' ...
Copying files from `/etc/skel' ...
Enter new UNIX password:
Retype new UNIX password:
passwd: password updated successfully
Changing the user information for james
Enter the new value, or press ENTER for the default
        Full Name []: James Gardner
        Room Number []:
        Work Phone []:
        Home Phone []:
        Other []:
Is the information correct? [y/N] y

You can then grant privileges with the visudo command and at the end of the file add james   ALL=(ALL) ALL then become james with su james.

Now you can become james with su james. Notice that the Bash prompt will now pick up the hostname change:

Debian-40-etch-64-minimal:~# su james
james@doppler:/root$

Locales

The first thing to set up are locales before you install any extra packages:

$ sudo dpkg-reconfigure locales

I chose en_GB.UTF-8 UTF-8 and also left en_US.ISO-8859-15 ISO-8859-15 selected too, choosing en_GB.UTF-8 UTF-8 as the default.

Timezones

The default setup has the German timezone. Lets change that to UTC:

james@doppler:/root$ sudo tzconfig
Your current time zone is set to Europe/Berlin
Do you want to change that? [n]: y

Please enter the number of the geographic area in which you live:


        1) Africa                       7) Australia

        2) America                      8) Europe

        3) US time zones                9) Indian Ocean

        4) Canada time zones            10) Pacific Ocean

        5) Asia                         11) Use System V style time zones

        6) Atlantic Ocean               12) None of the above


Then you will be shown a list of cities which represent the time zone
in which they are located. You should choose a city in your time zone.

Number: 8

Amsterdam Andorra Athens Belfast Belgrade Berlin Bratislava Brussels
Bucharest Budapest Chisinau Copenhagen Dublin Gibraltar Guernsey Helsinki
Isle_of_Man Istanbul Jersey Kaliningrad Kiev Lisbon Ljubljana London
Luxembourg Madrid Malta Mariehamn Minsk Monaco Moscow Nicosia Oslo Paris
Podgorica Prague Riga Rome Samara San_Marino Sarajevo Simferopol Skopje
Sofia Stockholm Tallinn Tirane Tiraspol Uzhgorod Vaduz Vatican Vienna
Vilnius Volgograd Warsaw Zagreb Zaporozhye Zurich

Please enter the name of one of these cities or zones
You just need to type enough letters to resolve ambiguities
Press Enter to view all of them again
Name: [] London
Your default time zone is set to 'Europe/London'.
Local time is now:      Fri Nov  9 16:53:52 GMT 2007.
Universal Time is now:  Fri Nov  9 16:53:52 UTC 2007.

SSH Config

Next we'll change the default SSH configuration to make it more secure:

Make a backup of /etc/ssh/sshd_config and then check or change the following:

Port 30000         <-- change to a port other than 22
PermitRootLogin no
AllowUsers james

These are self-explainatory. This will disable root logins, allow only the user james to login, only on port 30000. If you like you can also set:

PasswordAuthentication no

This will mean you will only be able to login via an SSH private/public key pair which you will have needed to set up in advance. I didn't do this.

Note that if you get them wrong you might not be able to login to the machine so be careful. Once you happy with the settings restart:

doppler:~# /etc/init.d/ssh restart
Restarting OpenBSD Secure Shell server: sshd.

Don't exit that shell though before you've loaded up another terminal and checked you can connect again. This time you'll need to use this:

ssh james@doppler.3aims.com -p 30000

If you do make a mistake and can't reconnect, boot into the rescue system and mount the drive with this command:

mount /dev/sda2 /mnt -t ext3

You will then be able to edit the file as /mnt/etc/ssh/sshd_config and then reboot back into your normal setup.

Also, publishing the settings you've chosen on a blog like this defeats the purposes of setting them so choose something different if you are going to publish them!

Firewall

You set up the firewall walls using iptables. This can't be done using sudo so you have to become the root user:

james@doppler:~$ sudo -i
Password:
doppler:~# whoami
root

You can see the firwall rules like this:

doppler:~# iptables -L
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination

Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination

If there were any rule you could save them like this:

iptables-save > /etc/iptables.current.rules

Here's a simple firewall configuration from the Slicehost Blog which you can use to block all access apart from on SSH, HTTP and HTTPS. Save this as /etc/iptables.test.rules. Feel free to modify it for your own use and be aware that if you have didn't change the SSH port to 30000 or you chose another port, you'll need to update the firewall config before you apply it.

Now load the rules with:

iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.test.rules

Again, test that you can still sign in using SSH before you exit the shell.

If you list the rules again you will see this:

doppler:~# iptables -L
Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination
ACCEPT     0    --  anywhere             anywhere
REJECT     0    --  anywhere             loopback/8          reject-with icmp-port-unreachable
ACCEPT     0    --  anywhere             anywhere            state RELATED,ESTABLISHED
ACCEPT     tcp  --  anywhere             anywhere            tcp dpt:www
ACCEPT     tcp  --  anywhere             anywhere            tcp dpt:https
ACCEPT     tcp  --  anywhere             anywhere            state NEW tcp dpt:30000
ACCEPT     icmp --  anywhere             anywhere            icmp echo-request
LOG        0    --  anywhere             anywhere            limit: avg 5/min burst 5 LOG level debug prefix `iptables denied: '
REJECT     0    --  anywhere             anywhere            reject-with icmp-port-unreachable

Chain FORWARD (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination
REJECT     0    --  anywhere             anywhere            reject-with icmp-port-unreachable

Chain OUTPUT (policy ACCEPT)
target     prot opt source               destination
ACCEPT     0    --  anywhere             anywhere

Once you are happy with the rules, save them permanently:

iptables-save > /etc/iptables.up.rules

Now we need to ensure that the iptables rules are applied when we reboot the server. At the moment, the changes will be lost and it will go back to allowing everything from everywhere.

Edit /etc/network/interfaces and add a pre-up line (shown below) just after iface lo inet loopback:

...
auto lo
iface lo inet loopback
pre-up iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.up.rules
...

This line will restore the iptables rules from the /etc/iptables.up.rules file.

Updating

Next I installed any updates from the repositories listed in /etc/apt/sources.list:

sudo apt-get update
sudo apt-get upgrade

perl-base was the only package upgraded. After I'd made all these changes I rebooted to ensure they were all applied.

That's as far as I can get until I recieve the new IP addresses. Might be some updates to the above if I run into any problems.

Note

Now you can create your virtual machines. See my previous article for how to do this. Start reading from the xen-create-image line.

Comments

AMD Talk &raquo; AMD 64 X2 Server From Hetzner

Posted:2007-11-09 20:05

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